Books and Articles

Chávez Ravine, 1949: A Los Angeles Story by Don Normark (Chronicle Books, 1999)
Collection of images taken by Don Normark in 1949 at Chávez Ravine

The Chicano: Hispanic Image in American Film by Frank J. Garcia Berumen (Vantage
Press, 1995) An examination of the cinematic portrayal of Chicanos and
Chicanas in American Films

Chicanos in California: A History of Mexican Americans in California by Albert Camarillo
(Boyd and Fraser Publishing Company, 1990) An extensive historical survey of
Mexicans, Mexican Americans, Chicanos and Chicanas in California

“Community Dynamics and the Rise of Street Gangs” by James Diego Vigil in
Latinos: Remaking America (University of California Press, 2002) An intriguing
analysis of street gangs

Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboy and Homegirls in Change by Joan W Moore (Temple
University Press, 1991) Describes gang culture by tracing three generations of
barrio gangs in East Los Angeles

Mexican Americans and WWII edited by Maggie Rivas-Rodriguez (University of
Texas Press, 2005) A compilation of essays exploring the role and significance of
Mexican Americans in World War II

Mexican Americans in Los Angeles County: A Study in Acculturation by Patrick H. McNamara
(R & E Publishers, 1975) Informative study of acculturation among Mexican
Americans in Los Angeles

Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A. by Eduardo Obregón
Pagán (The University of North Carolina Press, 2003) Informative account of the
Sleepy Lagoon Murder Trial and the Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles.

North From Mexico: The Spanish-speaking People of the United States by Carey McWilliams
(Greenwood Press, 1990) A historical account detailing the Mexican American
experience in the United States

“Saying ‘Nothin’: Pachucas and the Languages of Resistance” by Catherine S.
Ramírez (Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies 27.3; 2006) Scholarly article
examining the use of Caló by Pachucas

“Sexual and Cultural Battleground in World War II Los Angeles” by Elizabeth R.
Escobedo (The Western Historical Quarterly 38.2; 2007) A scholarly look at the
Pachuca persona of the 1940s.

Zoot Suit and Other Plays by Luis Valdez (Arte Publico Press, 1992) Zoot Suit and
other plays written by Luis Valdez

The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation by Mauricio Mazón
(University of Texas Press, 1984) Explores the psychodynamics behind the Zoot
Suit Riots


American G.I. Forum — Official website of the American G.I. Forum

El Teatro Campesino — Official website

Hispanic America USA — Provides detailed historical information about Latino war veterans including statistics and pictures

Ignacio Gomez — Official website of artist Ignacio Gomez creator of the Zoot Suit cover for the original production by Luis Valdez

Independent Lens: Chávez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story — PBS sponsored website to the film Chávez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story directed byJordan Mechner. Includes a historical account of the struggle for Chávez Ravine and an album of Don Normark’s photographs — Extensive information regarding United States American culture in the twentieth century

Mark Guerrero — Official website of musician Mark Guerrero, son of Eduardo Guerrero, includes information about his father and Chicano music

PBS: Zoot Suit Riots — PBS sponsored website to the film Zoot Suit Riots directed by Joseph Tovares. Includes maps, timelines, pictures, and narrative accounts

Smithsonian: Centerpieces — Includes a comprehensive article by Stuart Cosgrove detailing the origins and significance of zoot suit attire, article titled “The Zoot-Suit and Style Warfare”

Swing Music Net — Comprehensive site exploring swing and Big Band music of the 1940s

WWII Oral History Project — The U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project at the University of Texas at Austin’s archive of Latina and Latino veterans of World War II highlighting their roles and significance to the war effort


Chávez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story directed by Jordan Mechner
(Jam Flicks, LLC, 2004) A documentary inspired by the photographs of Chávez Ravine and taken by Don Normark thart documents the history of the people that lived in this antique Latino barrio.

Zoot Suit directed by Luis Valdez
(Universal Pictures, 1991) The cinematic adaptation of the theater production.

Zoot Suit Riots directed by Joseph Tovares
(WGBH Educational Foundation, 2001) Recounts the events of the the Zoot Suit Murder Trials and the Zoot Suit Riots.